Iceland's wetlands are a conducive habitat for many species of birds. Besides Svarfaðardalur Valley and the islets at the mouth of Eyjafjarðará River, Lake Mývatn in the North of Iceland is a popular bird watching destination. Mývatn and the nearby Laxá River are famous for their vast numbers of waterfowl, having one of the largest and most varied populations of breeding ducks in Europe, including the Harlequin duck and the Barrow's Goldeneye—which can be found nowhere else in Europe—as well as the Gyrfalcon.
When visiting breeding grounds around Iceland, be sure not to wander off the marked trails, as nests can be located anywhere
In the Westfjords, Látrabjarg is a veritable hotbed of bird activity. The largest known birdcliff in the world, Látrabjarg is home to millions of birds, hosting nearly half of the world's population of some species, such as the Razorbill. Also, in the isolated Strandir district of the Westfjords, is the little island Grímsey in Steingrímsfjörður, home to a large colony of puffins and other seabirds.
In the South of Iceland, not far from the village Vík, Dyrhólaey is a visually stunning rock peninsula where various species of seabirds can be viewed up close.
When visiting breeding grounds around Iceland, be sure not to wander off the marked trails, as nests can be located anywhere. The prime birdwatching season in Iceland is from the end of April to the beginning of June, although tours are offered year-round. Visit the local information offices in the area of Iceland you are visiting for more detailed information, including maps, tips, rules and regulations regarding bird watching in Iceland.
Iceland is the perfect location for whale watching. The cold waters off the coast play host to a diverse marine life. During the summer months in particular, Iceland's shores become a veritable feeding ground for multiple species of large marine mammals, giving visitors a chance to observe these magnificent creatures in their natural habitat.
The Icelandic horse is a unique breed of smallish horses that came to Iceland with the first settlers from Norway 1100 years ago. Archeological digs in Europe have revealed that it is descendent from an ancient breed of horses that is now extinct outside of Iceland, where it has been preserved in isolation.
Due to its position on the Mid-Atlantic ridge, Iceland is one of the most active volcanic regions in the world. Its unique geological conditions make for some awe-inspiring rock formations, both beneath the surface as well as above it. Various tube caves—formed by magma flowing underneath the earth's surface after lava has solidified overhead—can safely be explored through guided excursions year-round.